Alec Soth

  • Where did the article appear?
  • Who was it aimed at?
  • What was its purpose?
  • How does the writing style vary in the different articles?
  • How academic does the writing feel?
  • How easy was it to understand?
  • Did you understand the different intentions of the articles base upon where they appeared?
  • Can you pull out a useful quote from any of the articles?
  • Have all the articles been correctly referenced?


soth – bjp


where does the article appear?
British journal of photography –

who was the article aimed at?
people who are interested in photography and Alec Soth. You can see this because it is on a photography website but also there is quotes about Alec Soth in this piece. This piece also mentions other peoples opinions on his work.

what was the purpose of the article?
Photographers who want to learn more about their practice but also how to improve the aesthetic of their work.

how does the writing style vary in the different articles?
This article is different from the others as it involves the audience. Using words such as ‘you’ creates a feel of equality between the reader and photographer. You can also tell it is for photography enthusiasts as it uses photographic vocabulary.

How academic does the writing feel?
The language used within the text is more about giving the reader information, teaching them. Instead of for academic professions, more like academic in teaching, so for people who know about photography but not photographic professionals. This text uses lots of quotes and personal to the reader.

How easy was it to understand?
Personally i think this article was easy to understand, as someone doing a photography degree i know more about photography and am more interested in photography and artists than non-photographic people.

Did you understand the different intentions of the articles based upon where they appeared?
Based on the fact that it includes lots of details about the exhibition, how it got put up and what is included in it, including pictures of the exhibition, i would say that the intention on this article is to get people to come to the exhibition.

can you pull out a quote from any of the articles?
‘Everyone can take great pictures; whats hard is taking a collection of great pictures and making them work together’ Alec Soth

Has the article been referenced correctly?
yes the article has been referenced correctly

where does the article appear?

who is the article aimed at?
people who are interested in art but not necessarily heard of Alec Soth. This is because at the beginning there is a strong description of his work, told like a story, and then a description of Soth himself.

what is its purpose?
To inform arty types of a new artists work, to get them to go to the science museum in hopes of attracting a different type of person to the science museum.

How does the writing style vary in the different articles?
This article is more about the description describing Soth and his work instead of just about the exhibition and hearing from Soth himself.

How academic does the writing feel?
The first paragraph is written by someone you can tell is good at English, as well as the rest of the text, but you can tell that the article is for people that are not necessarily known for their art knowledge but not someone that is bad academically either.

how easy is it to understand?
This article is very easy to understand as it is very descriptive and informative. Written in language that is also easy to understand.

Did you understand the different intentions of the articles base upon where they appeared?
you can tell that the intention of this article is to attract different people to the science museum swell as a different type of audience to visit the exhibition.

can you pull out a useful quote?
‘To me the most beautiful thing is vulnerability’

has the article been correctly referenced?
yes the article has been referenced correctly, as well as including other articles on his exhibition.


where did the article appear?

who is the article aimed at?
readers who are more academically interested in Soth as an artist and photography. People who are more interested in the technical side of photography.

what is the articles purpose?
to inform the readers on the different technical abilities of Soth’s work.

How academic does the writing feel?
The writing does feel academic, it goes into depth about Soth’s work. This text is also written by Sean O’Hagan, a well established art critique for the guardian. It is also known that the guardian is a magazine for people with a higher social status.

how easy is the article to understand?
This article is harder to read, although it is still interesting, i feel though that it would be harder for a non- photographic person would find the technical terms and writing harder to read.

Did you understand the different intentions of the articles base upon where they appeared?
To inform the reader about new work that Soth has produced.

has the article been correctly referenced?
yes, there is references under every image as well as telling the reader where the exhibition will take place.

soth- time out

where does the article appear?

who is the article aimed at?
people who may not of heard of Soth’s work before as it goes into a lot of detail about his work and him as a person. Maybe students, people who are well informed about the art of photography but not know about Soth.

what is the purpose of the article?
to inform the reader about Soth and his work, mainly about his most recent work but also a little about his previous work and how he works. you can see this because the writer includes a bit about his work in 2010 ‘broken manual’.

how does the writing style vary from the different articles?
in this article the writing is very opinion based, unlike the other articles such as from the guardian which is very informative.
Although it does include information on Soth which is similar to the other articles.

how academic does the writing feel?
the writing doesn’t feel very academic as it uses a lot of brackets and uses words like ‘non-wealthy’ instead of ‘lower class’, as well as using vocabulary like ‘i.e.’

how easy is the article to understand.
the article is not as easy to understand as some of the other articles, because of the way it is written with the vocabulary, as well as with the punctuation in strange places, the article is hard to follow. This, but also the way that it is hard to trust what they are writing when they are not back up their accusations and statements.

Did you understand the different intentions of the articles base upon where they appeared?
you can see that this article is purely to give information and the writers opinion. Although both are not valid. This is because the information you can tell has come from another source, and the opinion is not useful to someone looking for information.

has the article been correctly referenced?
no, this article has not been correctly referenced. Where the writer has made an accusation or written information there is no reference to back it up.



ART GALLERY NSW (2000) Forest. Available at: (Accessed: 14 March 2016)

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Lim, M.A. (2015) Mortality in photography: Examining the death of Susan Sontag. Available at: (Accessed: 26 March 2016)

MOMA (no date) Carrie Mae Weems. From here I saw what happened and I cried. 1995. Available at: (Accessed: 14 March 2016)

MacCarthy, F. (2015) Touchy feely. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2016)

PACE (no date) Chuck close. Available at: (Accessed: 8 October 2015)

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Paul Strand (photographer) – his works, bio & shows on artsy (2016) Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2016)

Portner, J. (2011) ‘Unraveling the narrative: A conversation with photographer Eileen Cowin | the Getty Iris’, 10 October. Available at: (Accessed: 14 March 2016)

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Tate (no date) Cindy Sherman, ‘Untitled A’ 1975. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2016)

Tate, Riggs, T (1998) The snail Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2016)

Trust, M.R. and Society, A.R. (2015) Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky). Rayograph. 1922. Available at: (Accessed: 8 October 2015)

Wallace, R. (2014) The importance of funeral photography. Available at: (Accessed: 26 March 2016)

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information, forget stored (2015) Finding meaning in family photographs – BLOG. Available at: (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

Timeline of me

Zoe Rebecca Katherine Friedrich

19 years old – born 17th April 1996

I realised my interest for photography during my Art A-level. This was where is leaned towards photography in almost every project that I did. It wasn’t until my art foundation that i realised my real passion for photography.

I have never done a course in photography until this degree, so everything i knew about photography was self-taught before hand.

The most influential person that has got me to where i am now is my mum. me and mum.jpg10407408_10205607366319920_440635810521658156_n.jpgShe was the one that told me to stick at my A-levels and not to quit and then showing me my possibilities of the art foundation after my A-levels. She has always told me not to quit and to carry on when I’m feeling like i can’t do it anymore, and i never have when it comes to my education. I see other people and they give up so easily and instead of thinking thats the easy option its not. In the long run that will be harder than sticking at it for a little while longer. Unfortunately she i also the one that got me into the habit of leaving things until the last minute. I am trying to work on this.

There are two things that have shaped my personality and made me start to look at the world in a more positive light. To stop thinking about the petty problems that really don’t matter one is my step dad 7 years ago had a multiple brain haemorrhage. Since then i have been caring for him, and when i turned 18 about two years ago i became his part-time carer. This has made me stop taking things for granted and made me more caring. The second thing which has happened more recently is caring for the homeless around torbay. I feel like i have become more gentle and open minded from this. It has stopped me from being so conscious of others and what people think of me. It has made me even more positive and even more against confrontation. Although when i was younger i was positive and upbeat and outgoing because that is how my family is, but because of school and other outside influences these things started to change. I was shy and self-contious and was getting quite aggressive too but i am glad these things have changed me back as well as better than i was before.

I would say because my dad is very much into art, even though he has not influenced me that much, by opening me up to different artists and taken me to art galleries he has definitely opened possibilities and ideas to me. Even though it has been mainly paintings that he has got me into, it definitely sparked my art side. You could say though by introducing me into Rothko’s work he has influenced me because Rothko has been a major influence into my work. Inspiring me to add emotion and soul. To take pictures of my emotions and to get them to connect closer with me. black-on-maroon.jpg

All of these things have influenced me, from who i am and what i do and to the decisions i make.




In the beginning of contextual studies I was apprehensive. This was because artists and theorists had never stuck in my head. I didn’t know that much about photography and i didn’t see the need in others ideas when we were always told to have our own ideas and be individual in what we produce, making sure that we don’t copy. This was until we got a few weeks in. Since going to all the contextual lessons i have learned so many more possibilities to what my work could become. I have also learned about many photographers and since being in the lesson, then writing up about them and then looking up more information about them, they are now in my head. This became more apparent when i was doing an experiment for another assignment and immediately had two artists which would connect perfectly to what i was doing. While going through my work i was also able to add even more artists that connected. I was then able to look through my contextual work instead of looking up all over the internet for the information i had already found. This then made it easier to write about.

I found the hardest part about writing up contextual studies, was when writing up more information about the lecture and the artists that were included within the lesson. This is because there was so much information, and the lectures were so informative it was hard to find more that you could write about. I did make this harder for my self though as although i started out well writing up the lessons this soon became less and less. Although i turned up to almost every if not all lessons and wrote up on my laptop or notebook about the lesson, i was finding it hard to remember what we had talked about and extra notes which hadn’t been put onto the powerpoint. This made it hard when trying to find things to write about as well as finding it hard connecting to what i was writing about. It also meant that i had to write up almost everything in a week. Not that i left it until the last week but I wanted everything contextual written up by the end of the easter holiday. This meant that i had time to finish all of my other assignments but also if i had to add anything extra or had done something wrong I could change it. I felt that with something so important i could not leave it until the very end, especially as i do not deal with stress very well. It meant that i could elevate any possibilities of that as well as failure.

Looking at what i have learnt from contextual studies and where i want it to take my work next year is towards a more personal route. Looking at a lot of the artists used within the lectures most of them use their life experiences to create their work. I am looking at all of the photographers from all of the lectures, although i do like the approach of photographers such as Sally Waterman from the ‘intimate lives’ lecture as well as Sally Man and Richard Billingham from the ‘family album and social media’ lecture. Where they don’t only include their personal lives and experiences to create work but also include old photographs and family within the photographs and to work from to create new photographs. I have always enjoyed taking pictures of my family and using old photo albums to create new work. I used old photographs in a previous project during my Art foundation after my A-levels and really enjoyed it, from this i learned that i could connect really strongly with the work which not only got me creating a larger body of work but also a better body of work. Normally i connect with my work but i find it hard showing my ideas and getting my ideas across, but by it being so personal it almost seems self-explanitory and simple to explain. Another reason is because it is so intimate and personal, you almost want it to be the best it possibly can be, because other wise it is like they are failing your family photographs and it hurts even more personally.


intimate lives

Charlotte Cotton – ‘we generally take pictures at symbolic points in family life, at times we acknowledge our relationship bonds and social achievements’

sally waterman – past present (2005)PastPresent 01-OE2HON26CJ-large.jpg
Through transformative methods of constructed narratives, metaphorical landscapes and perforative re-eneactments – ‘waste land’ project became an attempt to work through marital breakdown and the divorce of her parents. – She adopts elusive modes of self representation in order to situate herself apart from the audience. Appearing as an anonymous figure or ghostly trace.

Tracey Emintracey_emin_bed_3250138b.jpg
Engages the viewer with her candid exploration of universal emotions. well-known for her confessional art – she reveals intimate details about her life within her work to engage the viewer.
Emin shows us her own bed, in all its embarrassing glory. Empty booze bottles, fag butts, stained sheets, worn panties – revealing that she’s as insecure and imperfect as the rest of the world.
she establishes a generous dialogue between the viewer and the artist by the re-telling of her unique and intimate life events.

Jo Spence – picture of health?2
A body of work where Jo Spence responds to her disease and treatment through photography. channelling her research and feelings about breast cancer into an exhibition. ‘photo therapy’ – using photography to heal ourselves. She used the exhibition to work on her stress and anxiety.
Her body of work is not just for a private record of a cancer sufferer. They tell us that having breast cancer is a social experience.
Spence identified photography as the complex site of ideological negotiation between family, class, gender and social life.

Nan GoldinNan_goldin-Custom-4.jpg
Goldin has taken intensely personal, spentneous, sexual, and transgressive photographs of her family, friends, and lovers.
She describes her photographs as a ‘visual diary’. The portrait of Nan one month after being battered was taken to prevent Goldin from forgotting the damage caused by her boyfriends violence.She applies the same frankness to the lives of her close friends. ‘there is no operation between me and what i photograph.’

Corinne Day –CoDa04.jpg Ex-model and self-taught photographer. ‘diary” is a culmination of ten years work and is intensely personal and frank photographic account of her life. shocking and sad, bleak and tender, the series draws comparison with the work of Nan Goldin and Larry Clark for its uncompromising honesty. A chronicle of young lives lived on the edge of drugs and despair.
‘good friends make you face the truth about yourself and you do the same for them, as painful, or as pleasurable, as the truth may be.’
’10 years of life which i kept and intermittent photographic diary of friends, family,experiences and places I’ve been’. – 100 photographs some painfully intimate, some unbearably sad.

Sophie Calle ‘take care of yourself’download
sent 107 women from a range of backgrounds and professions a break-up email from her partner. She asked them to interpret it how they wanted and made an art project from it. ‘After a month i felt better. There was no suffering. It worked. The project replaced the man’.
‘the rules of the game are always very strict. In take care f yourself i asked the participants to answer professionally, to analyse a breakup letter that i had received from a man.’ The parameters were fixed. For example i wanted the grammarian to speak about grammar. – i didn’t want the women expressing sentiment for me. except maybe my mother.’

introduction into narrative theory

Narrative theory
A written or spoken account of connected events.
Narrative – telling a story, links connecting everything together
Narrative begins with mankind, there does not exist, and never has existed, a people without narratives. (Barthes 1966:14)
What is a narrative – anything that tells a story
Paces/narrative environments is a space, whether physical or virtual, in which stories can unfold.
A virtual narrative environment might be a narrative framework
Narratives are visual just as much as literal.
Photo essays – a set of photographs that come together to make a story

Margaret Bourke-White (life magazine) cover photo of he Fort Peck Dam – first time someone had look behind the scenes – looked at the people surrounding it and the workers instead of the construction of the dam.

1951 Margaret thatcher??? Hired a lot of photographers to create photo essays. – After searching the internet i could not find any evidence that Thatcher did hire people to create photo essays.

typical narrative structure –1426003946309.jpeg


theorists for narrative

  • Tzetvsn Todorov – narratives always have a structure
  • Claude Levi-Strauss – human cultural understanding is based upon a system of binary opposites
  • Vladmir Propp – narratives have certain character types who perform certain actions
  • Roland Barthes – enigma code/ action code


non linear narrative – when the narrative keeps on jumping from the present to the past. – doesn’t go in a straight line. Doesn’t go beginning middle end, it goes forwards and backwards or starts at the end and works backwards, or stops sometimes and characters speak to the audience.

  • Inception – keeps on going back and forth in dream time and back and forth from now to when he was with his wife in the past.
  • Deadpool – goes back and forth from when he was becoming deadpan and the present. Also stops every now and then for deadpool to narrate or speak to the audience
  • Sin city – stops every now and again for one of the main characters to speak. Also speaks narrative to a character that may be sleeping so its pretty informative to the viewer. (sin city 3/12 movie clip)

Narrative interventions in photography – at the j. paul getty exhibition, getty centre 2011-2012 – Images that are intimate, and shocking, puzzling and poignant. – all used text in the images.

Simryn Gill ‘forest’


use to show an experience a sense of place, how culture because naturalised and almost invisible part of our physical environment- using the trunk of a cocoanut tree is wrapped in paper strips that form rings around the bark.

Eileen Cowin ‘I see what you’re saying’hqdefault.jpg

showing the need to strip away layers of obfuscation to arrive at the truth. The mutilated book suggests that words in all forms can deceive.
Carrie Mae Weems ‘from here I saw what happened and I cried’weems-photo-020.jpg

Daguerreotypes commissioned in the 1850s to make portraits of slaves. Weems wanted to show how the use of photography has played a key role throughout history in the shaping and supporting of racism, stereotypes and social injustice .

Barbara Krugertall.jpg

Her work is to sell an idea instead of a product. To make people reconsider a persons life and the context of their life. This print was designed 1989 for the reproductive rights protest, the march for women lives.
Bess Bielucyzk
-Water logged waterlogged_web.jpg

focusing on the woman’s solitary rebellion against the restrictions of her domestic life. She has created a character and environment based on stories and her own imaginings of the life of an unhappy housewife.


visual exhibition/ magazine article task

Presentation1 – click here

when organising our group we initially decided what we wanted to include in our exhibition. We began by deciding that each person within the group will do an artist based on our theme which was ‘Documentary : practise of recording’. So each person found a documentary photographer, from this we decided to base our exhibition on different types of documentary photography.
Our exhibition entitled “Documents of documentary” is as the title infers a series of documentary photographers. It’s showcasing diversity with different styles and photographs within one specific area. We used cubes to display work because they are all the same which signifies the unity of documentary, but they are segregated to show the difference between them.

Assigning roles and responsibilities was easy as each person in our group seemed to have a different quality which they were stronger at than others.
– Faye wrote the blurb during the lesson with input from other people from the group. I then tidied it up and added punctuation.
-Remy made a 3D virtual version of our exhibition, from the ideas we had all agreed on during lesson.
– Niamh then made a model of the exhibition.
– I put everything together in a presentation.
– After this was all done, and everyone had contributed to the exhibition we decided that the people that had not done anything more than their artist, we decided they would be the people that would speak during the presentation. Which included David and Dana although everyone did speak during the presentation.
over all I think we worked really well as a group, everyone contributed and everyone got on and there was no arguments or disagreements. We all communicated over Facebook apart from David who was emailed by a group member to keep him up to date.

I think our virtual exhibition worked well. I like the way that there is a large variety of documentary photographers, this is because like the exhibition is called ‘documents of documentary’ we are documenting different types of documentary photography. I also like the fact that the exhibition can be moved because it means it can be moved to different destinations – the destinations within the exhibition. Another thing i like about this exhibition is the cubes. This is because they are hanging meaning you have to interact with them, but also the fact that each cube is personal to the artist/ photographer and lastly because they include not only the images from the photographer but also information and a quote from them.

What i don’t think worked so well about the exhibition is that the variation in documentary photographers was too large. If we had kept them to well known documentary photographers or just new. Or we could have kept it at just contemporary or just old, then they would have merged better together. Personally I think we should have just used documentary photographers that were well known. Not worrying whether they were contemporary or not as long as they were known within their field in some way.

I enjoyed this task as it went smoothly and everyone got involved. No one in the group slacked or didn’t get included. I liked the way that it is a virtual exhibition so it could be unrealistic, because you are not actually creating it you don’t have to worry about cost or if it was possible. This meant you could use your imagination and come up with something that could never happen.



Representation in the media

Wells 2000 pp.34-35

Gender representation

Hannah Montana/ Miley Cyrus

June 2008 : vanity fair cover – image shot by Annie Leibovitzmileycyrus.jpg
– role model – why its considered unacceptable – was she doing something wrong?
– was she just doing what she was told?
– Billy Ray Cyrus said that Annie took advantage but he was at the shoot so should have stopped her if this was true.. – He put the blame on someone else because of the uproar and didn’t want the bad publicity.

– 2008 – Miley’s phone was hackedorig-2939981.jpg
is it acceptable because she is famous?
– does it matter where you got because you still have it?
– because they are famous they have a certain amount of responsibility – should they not be allowed to be their own person with their privacy, just because they are role model?
– stopped doing show but show still aired
– 2013 VMAs objectified her dancers, fondled herself, twerked, – (blurred lines)1186968_501892003236731_1278432868_n-300x199.jpg
– trying to break out of Hannah Montana
– Theo Wenner – photographer for rolling stone magazine – did a naked photoshoot of Miley – the readers of Rolling stone got angry – not because she is naked but because they don’t think she is a credible artist (don’t care what she looks like)
– manipulated by a male dominated industry
– Terry Richardson – Miley went to Richardson to break away from everyone looking at her like a child so everyone looks at her in a different light – many young stars have also gone to Richardson to this… – Lyndsey Lohan, Macauley Culkin, and Selina Gomez,
– Its bad that they feel like they need to get naked so people don’t look at them like little children
– pressure by the media to be sexual –
-Miley has been manipulated to what is and what is not acceptable.

brought out a song called ‘we can’t stop’ to send a message to people that she didn’t want to be that person any more. People had to get used to Miley being a party animal and she didn’t want to change that.    we can’t stop including lines like ‘doing whatever we want, this is our house this is our rules’

-‘the media is the message and the messenger’ shaping lives and emotions.
girls from a very young got that most more thing is for them to look good.
-boys then think that it is the norm and that its their right to look at pretty girls
-even the academic woman are made to look beautiful so they are taken seriously, but then they don’t, because they don’t look smart when they are made up and have makeup on

Lilly Allen brought out a song in 2013 called ‘hard out here’ showing people how hard it really is for women in the music industry and all working women. How they get sexualised and put down just because they are female. She include lines like ‘i don’t need to shake my arse for you cause I’ve got a brain’. She purposefully objectifies woman within the video so show people how bad it is. She is saying that unless you are skinny or rich or can cook you will be alone because thats all men care about and its only their opinion that matters. lily-allen-hard-out-here-1-1384334683-large-article-0.png

hard out here

– even though women get criticised so do men, they have to be seen as strong and macho, they can’t be seen as weak
although most of the time they are shown as fully clothed in suits or with big muscles even then its wearing a t-shirt or and open shirt, rarely with all of their clothes off apart from underwear
– women are sexualised, in photoshop their breasts and bums enhanced.

-‘cant be what you can’t see’- representation of gender starts at a young age – jobs and life and lifestyle and mindset – job roles set out – never showed jobs or given an idea to work different jobs – can’t be an engineer if you don’t have the choice or never been given the thought.

toddlers in tiaras – showed that the only way to be anything in your life you have to be beautiful. To be beautiful you need to be thin, wear lots of makeup and have your hair done. These girls think this is what they want but they have never known anything different so they don’t know the possibility of anything different.


Racial representation

Dolce and Gabbana – black figurine earnings and dress.
– Earrings style of person on eating is connected with slavery
– racial stereotypes – one collection looks a whole continent and pins it down/ ‘reduces and entire continent into a few archaic and racist stereotypes’
-Inspiration africa – ‘tribal’, ‘primitive’, ‘wild’, or ‘ethnic’
-people think it wouldn’t have been as bad if they had used black models but every model was white, not even of any other ethnicity.




Reading to chapter 6, page 15.

Initially I found this very hard to read, and had to read each page about twice before i even found 1 word that i could out from it.

I then found that highlighting as i was reading meant i had to focus on it a lot harder and read more carefully, this helped when i was trying to read as well as understand this piece of text. This also meant that i could come back to this piece of text and understand it better and pick out the useful parts easily.

From the lesson other useful ideas I have picked out to make reading a difficult piece of text easier…

  • use a thesaurus to understand the hard words – or you could replace the hard word with a word that has the same meaning but you understand better.
  • look up explanations/ overviews of the text on youtube – these people usually pick out the best and most important parts, this might make the text seem more interesting to you.
  • keep your finger where you are reading, this keeps your attention to the part you are on.
  • read slowly, this way you can take in every word.
  • re-read paragraphs after you have read them, and before you start the next one.

after knowing these facts it is definitely easier reading difficult texts, and i will carry on reading the text as i found it interesting after understanding it.




taste/ value/ judgement

  • 2007 – window – £3 million – apparently window of the assassin of JFK _42582599_jfk_ebay203x250b
  • need a certificate of validation – not for really old but you do need the history of piece
  •  who its worth the money to
  • was contested whether this was the actual window.


Taste – personal to the person , what they’re interested in – what is offensive or acceptable – 

  • culture, taste of an aesthetic, sociological, economic and anthropological
  • cultural patterns
  • not just biological
  • distinctions between things such as styles, manners, consumer goods and works of art
  • taste and consumption closely link together, taste as a preference
  • arguably, the question of taste is in many ways related to underlying social divisions of community.
  • variation between groups of different socioeconomic status in preferences for cultural practices of goods, to the extent that is often possible to identify particular types of class taste.
  • Walter Benjamin (1936) the work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction (the aura of the original)
  • Mon Lisa diminished? by mass reproduction of Mona Lisa in different items?
  • low art – unafraid to appeal to the sense (iPad made of gold, encrusted with diamonds) £5,000,000highlow.jpg
  • high art – suspicious of the delicious – as if one were being seduced for impure reasons (only good being people tell you its good and the fact it costs a lot of money) Jackson pollock – £140,000,000
  • Brian Sewell – English art critic and media personality
  • did not hold his tongue regarding his opinions.
  • frequently insulted the general public for their views – “doesn’t matter if the public like it”
  • low art – not necessarily the artists as they are all known artists that have created good art.
  • David LaChapelle – (Pamela Anderson: miracle tan, 2004)116ddf0f74756de0b5af2156d899d54a
  • Terry Richardson – nude shots of Miley Cyrustumblr_mu29rtLyYh1qa42jro1_1280
  • Sally Mann, winter squash, 1988 (immediate family) ‘you photograph the things that you are close to you, this is what you photograph best’Photographed by David Heald 05/18/05


Value – an estimated worth – what someone thinks is deserved of value – when something is important it is more valuable.

  • Andy Warhol – coca cola – $57.3m650Warhol-Coca-Cola-3-1
  • Jeff Koom – got the most money for living artist – $50m
  • Francais Bacon – most expensive work of art  – three panelled painting – $142.4m – 2013
  • Pablo Picasso – world record most paid for painting sold at auction – $179m – 2015
  • Artnet/ Ocular black – where you can see your images.
  • the internet has impacted selling and shops – more people are using the internet – easier to get onto for selling – harder to sell as many.
  • Leonardo da Vinci’s codex hammer – $30,802,500 – 1994
  • smith attempts to differentiate between value in use (utility) and value in exchange
  • economist is said to understand price but not value
  • price alters with supply and demand (air is not scarce- therefore has no price) although air is a basic need so it clearly has intrinsic value
  • when there is less of something it becomes more expensive – originals are more expensive that copies.
  • Edward Steichen’s ‘the pond Ware-50-2-apr06-f1.jpg– moonlight’ $2,928,000 – 3 prints exist, but 2 are in museums so there is only 1 that is for sale. This makes it more valuable.
  • the most expensive photograph  – Andreas Gursky – Rhein II – 1999 – $4.3m six prints in total, but they are all different sizes and Rhein II is the largest of them all.
  • Apparently this changed when Peter Lik sold a picture for $6.5m but it was a private sale and he can’t / hasn’t proved the sale so Gursky still holds the record for the most expensive photograph. A Lik photograph has never sold for more than $16,000 at auction, this was achieved with the photograph ghost. Before this he had never sold a photograph for more than $3,000 –

Judgement – the ability to make considered decisions – an opinion or conclusion

“What is a cynic? A man who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing” Oscar Wilde


What is a judgment of taste? Kant isolated two fundamental necessary conditions for a judgment to be a judgment of taste — subjectivity and universality (Kant 1790). Other conditions may also contribute to what it is to be a judgment of taste, but they are consequential on, or predicated on, the two fundamental conditions.
The first necessary condition of a judgment of taste is that it is essentially subjective. What this means is that the judgment of taste is based on a feeling of pleasure or displeasure. It is this that distinguishes a judgment of taste from an empirical judgment. Central examples of judgments of taste are judgments of beauty and ugliness. (Judgments of taste can be about art or nature.)                                                                                                                                       The second is universality, In order to see what is special about pleasure in beauty, we must shift the focus back to consider what is special about the judgment of taste. For Kant, the judgment of taste claims “universal validity”