pinhole camera

For this technology i am using a can to create a pin hole camera. It is created by using a can which i used a can opener to take off the top which i then replaced with a cap using black card and electrical tape, this is so i can re-use the can to take lots of images using the camera. it means that it is more accessible to put the paper inside but also means it has been blacked out so the paper can not be affected by the light apart from when exposing it.

I created 4 pinhole cameras, which meant i could try a range of different exposing times. from looking on the internet i found a diagram on how long you should expose to how bright it is outside.


after looking at this and the day i was trying to use the pinhole camera i decided on 4 exposure times.

30 seconds/ 40 seconds/ 50 seconds/ 60 seconds. This is because its was sunny with a few clouds. i thought a bigger variety would higher my chances of coming back with a picture as this was the first time i had made or used a pinhole camera.

The outcome of this experiment was every picture was over exposed. The whole paper came out black, so this experiment failed. i then went back to looking up exposure times to see what went wrong and why even though i had times the exposure times to make sure they were right as well as keeping them incredibly still.

from looking at different videos and internet articles i found that i could also expose for about 2-6 seconds. When i try it again i will make a lot more pinhole cameras and do a larger variety of exposure times.


35mm camera using a long focal length lens

obviously the performance of the camera is the same but the outcome of the image is very different.

a long focal length lens means that you can shoot further distances and things further away.

the object is magnified so has the same effect as moving closer to the object, this would normally be fine but if something is too high or somewhere where you cannot get to then obviously a regular focal length lens is not suitable.

the picture quality should not be effected by lens if the lens is good enough.

For me using a Pentax ME Super with the long focal length lens and the regular focal length lens which both came with the camera and brought at the same time the quality should not change.

phone cameras

Phone cameras are much simpler than digital cameras, they use fixed focal lenses and small sensors which limit their ability, as well as not having a shutter which affects the image quality.

Pictures from phones are pixelated and unclear, completely opposite to a DSLR or film SLR.

The first camera phone was sold in Japan in 2000, these images were pixelated. Since then the image quality has improved, looking at new iPhones and android phones, the image quality is still nothing compared to high end cameras.

Since phone technology has come a long way in the past few years lots of people started to doubt photography and degrees in photography, (why do you need to do a degree  if camera phones are just as good at taking pictures as high end cameras like Nikon, Cannon or Pentax?) Well what i have learned is that for snap shots, camera phones are just fine for taking pictures. They are quick and easy, being able to set up and take a quick pic in minimal timing. When taking images of high quality that are being blown up or for commercial use then a digital SLR camera is definitely better.

For this apparatus i am using a Samsung Galaxy S3. This phone came out in May 2012, nearly 4 years ago. Since then Phone camera technology has come a long way, when looking for DSLR VS camera phone blogs, websites, and reviews, The one phone they mainly used in comparison was an iPhone 5/6 phones which came out in 2014/2015. These camera phones will be more advanced that a model from 2012 but never the less it is still a phone with a camera.

For this apparatus I will be taking pictures with my Samsung Galaxy S3 and comparing it against a Nikon D7000. A camera which came out in September 2010 just over 5 years ago. There is now more advanced and newer DSLR’s on the market. As both are a few years old i felt like this was a fair comparison as both came out in similar years. I will be taking pictures of the same subject using the same lighting, this will also make it fair as then the variables will be the same. I am comparing the two for one simple reason, that it is easier to see the pros and cons of a technology when comparing it against a technology which has been built for purpose, with many years of research.

35mm film camera

using 35mm film – 36 x 24mm film. 35mm film cameras typically used for still photography.

SLR – single-lens reflex camera. Uses and prism and mirror system that typically shows the photographer to look through the lens and see exactly what they will be capturing.

35mm films cameras come with a variety of film lengths, typically 20 film, 24 film, and 36 film camera rolls.

A film camera is a plastic or metal box which is completely sealed from any light to stop the film from getting damaged.


Meaning – Digital single-lens reflex camera

DSLR’s mainly replaced film SLR’s in the 2000’s – and despite the growing popularity of mirrorless cameras the DSLR still remained the most popular of the interchangeable lens cameras.

focusing a DSLR can be manual or digital, typically by changing between the switch located on the camera – on the D7000 it is on the left hand of the lens. When on automatic you press the shutter release half way which then focuses the camera. When on manual you use the lens to focus and then press the shutter release.

DSLR’s have an in camera light meter to tell you if you have to change the aperture, inside the view finder. Inside it also tells you the shutter speed, the aperture and the ISO. All can be done automatically when the camera is on automatic on the mode dial. it can also be done on manual as then you have more control of the image being taken. If you want a darker image or a lighter image this can be done manually.

Mode dial                                                                                                                                     Mode_Dials_Nikon_D60

When shooting, shoot in RAW. RAW is where all of the image data is recorded meaning you can produce higher quality images, unlike in JPEG where the image is compressed and lost. When in JPEG the camera does it own processing of the image so it can be compressed, losing all image data.



basics of photography


Exposure – shutter speed, ISO , and aperture

Shutter speed = exposure time of the photography

ISO = the cameras sensitivity to light

Aperture = the size of the hole in the lens

using the light meter in your camera – 2 different lights                                     incident light = the light coming from the sun or a light source to the object being photographed                                                                                             reflected light = the light bouncing off the object

black ———-grey————-white


Hard light creates shadows, soft light doesn’t.                                                      can’t get blacker than black or whiter than white. This is because both black and white have nothing in them.

Use spot metering to accentuate highlights and shadows.

A reflected light reading tries to expose for a neutral grey in the scene.               A incident light reading simply measures the amount of light falling on the subject or the scene.

For a darker subject matter you need a higher ISO.                                                 For a lighter subject matter you need a lower ISO.

When in the studio you need a light meter because of the flash used – can’t register amount of light that will be there.

Aperture – smaller hole – bigger number                                                                             -bigger hole –  smaller number                                                                                     A smaller aperture gives a shallower depth of field.                                              If the camera lets in a lot of light it allows the object to be shot in dim light. If it is too bright you can change the shutter speed.

each time you go up or down with aperture it is halving or doubling the amount of light. Eg/ F11 is half the amount of light as F8. F8 if half the amount of light as F5.6.

shutter speed – the speed at which the shutter is opened. usually measures as fractions of a second. Eg/ 1/30 is a 30th of a second. 1/60 is a 60th of a second

You should never used a shutter speed which is smaller than the focal length of the camera, as this will then cause camera shake.

correct exposure – what aesthetic look/ approach you want



Medium format camera

Medium format cameras are film cameras that use a larger film format. it records images on film larger than 24mm by 36mm(full from) (used in 35mm photography) but small than 4 by 5 inches. From the film being larger the picture quality is a lot higher. Most medium format camera take ‘120mm’ film which is 60mm wide which is larger than the typical 35mm film being 36mm wide, ‘220mm’ film is also used in medium format cameras this is the same width as ‘120mm’ film but double the length.

A well known film camera which is one that i would like to try out for this project and research more into is the Hasselblad camera.


HASSELBLAD CAMERA – made by the Hasselblad corporation of Sweden, and use the German made Carl Zeiss lenses. The Hasselblad camera first came out in 1957, this was one of the first system cameras, this meant that almost everything within the camera was interchangeable. Cameras before the Hasselblad were delicate and prone to breaking but Victor Hasselblad wanted a camera which could be used in all conditions, they were strong and reliable as well as durable this is why if well maintained a Hasselblad camera can still work perfectly fine after 40 years.

Using a Hasselblad camera had 3 rings  (from front to back) – the first ring is focus – the second ring is aperture for controlling the diaphragm – the third ring is for shutter speed, from 1/500 to 1 second.


Before writing this post i had absolutely no idea what a medium format camera was, after wring this post i can’t wait to start using one and taking some pictures. I love using film and since researching it in more depth it looks more challenging than regular 35mm film but still fun and i can’t wait to start using it to see the differences and resemblances.


To anticipate is to look ahead; this project asks that you consider an image not capturing a moment from present but creating images ‘already defined’ by the technology you are using. the term apparatus may refer to the equipment used in an experiment. It may also be used to refer to the interrelated discourses that create a particular ‘knowledge’ or practice, How does our understanding of apparatus anticipate the images we make? How do they control what is made? For example, how does a particular style of lighting or the angle of view or lens create a very specific type of image.

You may chose any subject to photograph. However, you must engage wit the subject using technology or technologies and/or equipment and produce creative images of your selected subjects that demonstrate engagement with and competence of the technology you use.

The only formal requirements are that at least one of your images must be created using a medium format camera and one must use controlled lighting.